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Red Propolis Science

Scientific Research and Publications about Bee Propolis

At NaturaNectar we not only have as a company Standard “Sound Science & Research” but strongly believe that customer eductaion is of great importance in the walk for healthier lives.

We have created this Propolis Science Library to provide you with easy access to research and scientific papers on this ingredient that is at the cornerstone of our company, the amazing bee propolis.

Here you find work from respected intitutions related to bee propolis in general, specific types of bee propolis including our red bee propolis and scientific work on our bee propolis extracts PWE™ and FLAV™.

Jens Vagn Nielsen (M.Science, Pharmacist) a member of our Scientific Advisory Board has participated in some of the research work published here. I you have questions about the articles feel free to contact us at: info@naturanectar.com

Constituents of Brazilian red propolis and their preferential cytotoxic activity against human pancreatic - PANC-1 cancer cell line..

Awale S, Li F, Onozuka H, Esumi H, Tezuka Y, Kadota S.
Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
Human pancreatic cancer cells such as PANC-1 are known to exhibit marked tolerance to nutrition starvation that enables them to survive for prolonged period of time even under extremely nutrient-deprived conditions. Thus, elimination of this tolerance to nutrition starvation is regarded as a novel approach in anticancer drug development. In this study, the MeOH soluble extract of Brazilian red propolis was found to kill 100% PANC-1 cells preferentially in the nutrient-deprived condition at the concentration of 10 microg/mL. Further phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of 43 compounds including three new compounds, (6aS,11aS)-6a-ethoxymedicarpan (1), 2-(2′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-6-methoxybenzofuran (2), and 2,6-dihydroxy-2-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-3-benzofuranone (3). Among them, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dihydroxy-9-methoxypterocarpan (21, DMPC) displayed the most potent 100% preferential cytotoxicity (PC(100)) at the concentration of 12.5 microM. Further study on the mode of cell death induced by DMPC against PANC-1 cells indicated that killing process was not accompanied by DNA fragmentation, rather through a nonapoptotic pathway accompanied by necrotic-type morphological changes.


Comparison of Effects of the Ethanolic Extracts of Brazilian Propolis on Human Leukemic Cells As Assessed with the MTT Assay

Gilberto C. Franchi Jr.,1 Cleber S. Moraes,2 Viviane C. Toreti,2 Andreas Daugsch,2 Alexandre E. Nowill,1 and Yong K. Park2
1Integrated Center for Childhood Onco-Hematological Investigation, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6141, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2Department of Food Science, College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6177, Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 6 April 2011; Revised 8 June 2011; Accepted 24 July 2011

Academic Editor: Edwin L. Cooper

Copyright © 2012 Gilberto C. Franchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Propolis is a resinous product collected by honey bees. It was also reported that propolis has a wide variety of biological actions, including antimicrobial activity and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and suppressive effects of dioxin toxicity activities. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxic activities of green propolis (G12) and red propolis (G13) in human leukemia cells. These cells were incubated with different concentrations of propolis and 48 hours after the IC50 was calculated for each cell. The results showed that the red propolis has cytotoxic effect in vitro higher than green propolis. Red propolis was showed to be cytostatic in K562 cells and caused the same amount of apoptosis as its control Gleevec. In conclusion, these results showed that red propolis is more cytotoxic than the green propolis in a variety of human cell lines of leukemia. Red propolis may contain drugs capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. Therefore, further isolation of respective chemical ingredients from the red propolis (G13) for identification of the activities is necessary.

COMPLETE ARTICLE http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/918956/

Potential Utility Of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy And Propolis In Enhancing The Leishmanicidal Activity Of Glucantime

Diana Copi AYRES(1), Thiago Antonio FEDELE(2), Maria Cristina MARCUCCI(2) & Selma GIORGIO(1)


Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 53(6):329-334, November – December, 2011 doi: 10.1590/S0036-46652011000600006




In this study we investigated the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy, alone or combined with the pentavalent antimonial glucantime on Leishmania amazonensis infection. In parallel, the effect of Brazilian red propolis gel (propain) alone or combined with glucantime on L. amazonensis infection was evaluated. The inhibition of the infection in macrophages treated with glucantime in combination with HBO exposition was greater than that of macrophages treated with glucantime alone or HBO alone. The susceptible mouse strain BALB/c infected in the shaved rump with L. amazonensis treated with glucantime and exposed to HBO showed: time points in the course of the disease in which lesions were smaller than those of mice treated with glucantime alone and revascularization of the skin in the lesion site; interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels were not elevated in lymph node cells from these animals. Propain alone was not efficient against lesions, although less exudative lesions were observed in animals treated with propain alone or combined with glucantime. These results reveal the potential value of HBO and red propolis in combination with glucantime for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis and encourage further studies on the effect of more aggressive HBO, propolis and glucantime therapies on different mouse models of leishmaniasis.


Suppression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 a Contributes to the Antiangiogenic Activity of Red Propolis Polyphenols in Human Endothelial Cells1–3

Julio B. Daleprane,4,5,8* Tobias Schmid,6 Nathalie Dehne,6 Martina Rudnicki,4 Heidi Menrad,6 Theresa Geis,6 Masaharu Ikegaki,7 Thomas P. Ong,5 Bernhard Bru ̈ne,6 and Dulcineia S. P. Abdalla4


4Department of Clinical and Toxicology Analysis, and 5Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 6Institute of Biochemistry I, Faculty of Medicine, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; and 7Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, Brazil




Polyphenol-enriched fractions from natural sources have been proposed to interfere with angiogenesis in pathological conditions. We recently reported that red propolis polyphenols (RPP) exert antiangiogenic activity. However, molecular mechanisms of this activity remain unclear. Here, we aimed at characterizing molecular mechanisms to explain the impact of RPP on endothelial cells (EC) physiology. We used in vitro and ex and in vivo models to test the hypothesis that RPP inhibit angiogenesis by affecting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 a (HIF1a) stabilization in EC. RPP (10 mg/L) affected angiogenesis by reducing migration and sprouting of EC, attenuated the formation of new blood vessels, and decreased the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into CD31 positive cells. Moreover, RPP (10 mg/L) inhibited hypoxia- or dimethyloxallylglycine-induced mRNA and protein expression of the crucial angiogenesis promoter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a time-dependent manner. Under hypoxic conditions, RPP at 10 mg/L, supplied for 1–4 h, decreased HIF1a protein accumulation, which in turn attenuated VEGF gene expression. In addition, RPP reduced the HIF1a protein half-life from ;58 min to 38 min under hypoxic conditions. The reduced HIF1a protein half-life was associated with an increase in the von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL)-dependent proteasomal degradation of HIF1a. RPP (10 mg/L, 4 h) downregulated Cdc42 protein expression. This caused a corresponding increase in pVHL protein levels and a subsequent degradation of HIF1a. In summary, we have elucidated the underlying mechanism for the antiangiogenic action of RPP, which attenuates HIF1a protein accumulation and signaling. J. Nutr. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.150706.

Ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis promote adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ activation.

Iio A, Ohguchi K, Inoue H, Maruyama H, Araki Y, Nozawa Y, Ito M.
Gifu International Institute of Biotechnology, 1-1 Naka-Fudogaoka, Kakamigahara, Gifu 504-0838, Japan. aiio@giib.or.jp
The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extracts of red propolis (EERP) on adipogenesis and evaluate the molecular basis for their anti-obesity effects.
We tested whether EERP alone could induce differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes and reverse inhibitory effects of TNF-α on their differentiation. Next, we performed a luciferase reporter gene assay to test whether EERP could enhance transcriptional activities of PPARγ and adiponectin promoter activities.
EERP strongly induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, and enhanced the PPARγ transcriptional activity and adiponectin promoter activity. In addition, EERP attenuated the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin production in mature adipocytes.
The present study indicates that EERP enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by its potency of PPARγ activation and are capable of reversing inhibitory effects of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression. These results suggest the value of EERP as a diet supplement for prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.
2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis increase ABCA1 expression and promote cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages

Ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis increase ABCA1 expression and promote cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages 

Akio Iioa,∗, Kenji Ohguchia,b, Hiroe Maruyamac, Shigemi Tazawac, Yoko Arakic, Kenji Ichiharac, Yoshinori Nozawaa,d, Masafumi Itoa


a Gifu International Institute of Biotechnology, 1-1 Naka-Fudogaoka, Kakamigahara, Gifu 504-0838, Japan b Department of Human Nutrition, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, 17-3 Hoshigaoka-Motomachi, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8662, Japan c Nagaragawa Research Center, Api Co. Ltd., 692-3 Yamasaki, Nagara, Gifu 502-0071, Japan d Department of Food and Health, Tokai Gakuin University, 5-68 Naka-Kirinocho, Kakamigahara, Gifu 504-8511, Japan




The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a membrane transporter that directly contributes to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis by regulating the cellular efflux of cholesterol. Since ABCA1 plays a pivotal role in cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism, identification of a novel substance that is capable of increasing its expression would be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we studied the effects of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis (EERP) on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. EERP enhanced PPAR


Anti-atherogenic and anti-angiogenic activities of polyphenols from propolis

Julio Beltrame Dalepranea,b, Vanessa da Silva Freitasb, Alejandro Pachecoc, Martina Rudnickib, Luciane Aparecida Faineb, Felipe Augusto Dörrb, Masaharu Ikegakid, Luis Antonio Salazarc, Thomas Prates Onga, Dulcinéia Saes Parra Abdallab,⁎


aDepartment of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil b Department of Clinical and Toxicology Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil c Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile d Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, MG, Brazil




Propolis is a polyphenol-rich resinous substance extensively used to improve health and prevent diseases. The effects of polyphenols from different sources of propolis on atherosclerotic lesions and inflammatory and angiogenic factors were investigated in LDL receptor gene (LDLr−/−) knockout mice. The animals received a cholesterol-enriched diet to induce the initial atherosclerotic lesions (IALs) or advanced atherosclerotic lesions (AALs). The IAL or AAL animals were divided into three groups, each receiving polyphenols from either the green, red or brown propolis (250 mg/kg per day) by gavage. After 4 weeks of polyphenol treatment, the animals were sacrificed and their blood was collected for lipid profile analysis. The atheromatous lesions at the aortic root were also analyzed for gene expression of inflammatory and angiogenic factors by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. All three polyphenol extracts improved the lipid profile and decreased the atherosclerotic lesion area in IAL animals. However, only polyphenols from the red propolis induced favorable changes in the lipid profiles and reduced the lesion areas in AAL mice. In IAL groups, VCAM, MCP-1, FGF, PDGF, VEGF, PECAM and MMP-9 gene expression was down-regulated, while the metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-1 gene was up-regulated by all polyphenol extracts. In contrast, for advanced lesions, only the polyphenols from red propolis induced the down-regulation of CD36 and the up-regulation of HO-1 and TIMP-1 when compared to polyphenols from the other two types of propolis. In conclusion, polyphenols from propolis, particularly red propolis, are able to reduce atherosclerotic lesions through mechanisms including the modulation of inflammatory and angiogenic factors.
© 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin of Red Propolis, a New Type of Brazilian Propolis

Bruno B. Silva(1), Pedro L. Rosalen(1), Jaime A. Cury(1), Masaharu Ikegaki(2), Vinicius C. Souza(3), Alessandro Esteves(4) and Severino M. Alencar(3)

1Piracicaba Dentistry School (FOP/UNICAMP), Department of Physiologic Science, C.P. 52; Zip-code: 13414-903, Piracicaba, SP, 2Federal University of Alfenas; Zip-code 37130-000, Alfenas, MG, 3 College of Agriculture ‘Luiz de Queiroz’ (ESALQ/USP), C.P. 9; ZIP-CODE: 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP and 4Apia ́rios Almar e Essenciale LTDA, Maceio ́, AL, Brazil.


Red propolis is a new type of Brazilian propolis. This material, as well as the secretions of 20 plant species that are often mentioned as its probable botanical source, have been investigated by RP-HPTLC. Phytochemical evidence based on UV-VIS spectra, RP-HPLC and GC-MS, showed Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L.) Taub. to be the main source of red propolis in Alagoas state. The propolis and plant resin showed high relative percentages of the isoflavonoids 3-Hydroxy-8,9-dimethoxypterocarpan and medicarpin. To our knowledge this is the first report of the secretion of a leguminous species being the source of propolis.

Evaluation of allergens in propolis by ultra‐performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

Claudio Gardana* and Paolo Simonetti


Università degli Studi di Milano, DiSTAM – Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiologiche, Via Celoria 2,
20133 Milan, Italy


The purified extract of propolis is used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of several diseases. Its beneficial activities are mainly attributed to the polyphenolic fraction. Nevertheless, propolis can cause allergic dermatitis and the sensitization rate in humans is increasing significantly mainly in younger subjects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a selective and sensitive ultra‐performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (UPLC/MS/MS) for the evaluation of the amount of caffeic acid and its esters with allergenic action in raw propolis samples and commercial formulations. The separation was carried out on a 1.7 μm C18 BEH Shield column and the detection performed by means of electrospray ionization in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The confirmation of formulae of the precursor and product ions was accomplished by injection into a high‐resolution system (FTICR‐MS) using accurate mass measurements. The error was below 1.4 ppm.The range of the standard curves was 0.5–10 μg/mL and dihydrocaffeic acid was used as internal standard (IS). The lower limit of detection (LLOD) for 3‐methyl‐2‐butenyl‐ (3M2B), 3‐methyl‐3‐butenyl‐ (3M3B), 2‐methyl‐2‐butenyl‐ (2M2B), benzyl‐ (CABE), phenylethylcaffeic acid (CAPE) and for caffeic acid (CA) and the IS was 0.1 and 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries were in the range 96–104% and the intra‐ and inter‐day precisions were within 6.2%. In the European (n = 8) and Asiatic (n=3) propolis the most abundant allergens were CABE>3M2B>CAPE>3M3B>CA>2M2B. These compounds were not found in the red (n = 1) and green (n = 1) Brazilian propolis. Hydroalcoholic extracts (n = 6) and tablets (n = 6) were analyzed by the proposed UPLC/MS/MS method. The results showed that in the commercial products CABE, 3M2B, CAPE and 3M3B were also the most abundant. Copyright # 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Chemical composition and biological activity of a new type of Brazilian propolis: red propolis.

Alencar SM, Oldoni TL, Castro ML, Cabral IS, Costa-Neto CM, Cury JA, Rosalen PL, Ikegaki M.

Department of Agri-Food industry, Food and Nutrition, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Avenida Pádua Dias 11, Piracicaba, CEP 13418-900, SP, Brazil. alenca@easlq.usp.br
Propolis has been used as a medicinal agent to treat infections and promote wound healing for centuries. The aim of the present study was to test the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of a new type of Brazilian propolis, popularly called red propolis, as well as to analyze its chemical composition. The antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus mutans UA159 was evaluated and the chloroform fraction (Chlo-fr) was the most active with lower MIC ranging from 25 to 50 microg/ml. The hexane fraction (H-fr), having the highest concentration of total flavonoids, showed the best sequestrating activity for the free radical DPPH. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) showed cytotoxic activity for the HeLa tumor cells with an IC(50) of 7.45 microg/ml. When the EEP was analyzed by GC-MS, seven new compounds were found, among which four were isoflavones. Our results showed that the red propolis has biologically active compounds that had never been reported in other types of Brazilian propolis.

Cytotoxic constituents from Brazilian red propolis and their structure-activity relationship.

Li F, Awale S, Tezuka Y, Kadota S.
Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
Several classes of flavonoids [flavanoids (1-10), flavonol (11), isoflavones (12-18), isoflavanones (19-22), isoflavans (23-26), chalcones (27-30), auronol (31), pterocarpans (32-37), 2-arylbenzofuran (38), and neoflavonoid (39)] and lignans (40-42) isolated from the MeOH extract of Brazilian red propolis were investigated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of six different cancer cell lines including murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine B16-BL6 melanoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, and human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell lines. Based on the observed results, structure-activity relationships were discussed. Among the tested compounds, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxyflavanone (3) exhibited the most potent activity against B16-BL6 (IC(50), 6.66microM), LLC (IC(50), 9.29microM), A549 (IC(50), 8.63microM), and HT-1080 (IC(50), 7.94microM) cancer cell lines, and mucronulatol (26) against LLC (IC(50), 8.38microM) and A549 (IC(50), 9.9microM) cancer cell lines. These activity data were comparable to those of the clinically used anticancer drugs, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin, against the tested cell lines, suggesting that 3 and 26 are the good candidates for future anticancer drug development.

Brazilian red propolis: unreported substances, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

Righi AA, Alves TR, Negri G, Marques LM, Breyer H, Salatino A.
Institute of Biosciences, Botany Department, University of São Paulo, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. adnerighi@gmail.com.
Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of a sample of red propolis from the state of Alagoas (northeast Brazil) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were also obtained.
The propolis sample contained low content of narigenin-8-C-hexoside, this being the first report of a C-glycoside in propolis. The main constituent found was characterized as 3,4,2′,3′-tetrahydroxychalcone. Other important constituents were the chalcone isoliquiritigenin, the isoflavans (3S)-vestitol, (3S)-7-O-methylvestitol, the pterocarpan medicarpin, the phenylpropenes trans-anethol, methyl eugenol, elimicin, methoxyeugenol and cis-asarone, and the triterpenic alcohols lupeol and α- and β- amyrins. The methanol extract exhibited high antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene/linoleic acid assay methods, and antimicrobial activity toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Structures are suggested for new substances never before seen in any kind of propolis. This is the first report of 3,4,2′,3′-tetrahydroxychalcone and a flavone C-glycoside in a propolis sample. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Bioactive constituents of brazilian red propolis.

Trusheva B, Popova M, Bankova V, Simova S, Marcucci MC, Miorin PL, da Rocha Pasin F, Tsvetkova I.
In a new propolis type, red Brazilian propolis, 14 compounds were identified (six of them new for propolis), among them simple phenolics, triterepenoids, isoflavonoids, prenylated benzophenones and a naphthoquinone epoxide (isolated for the first time from a natural source). Three of the major components demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity, and two (obtained as inseparable mixture) possessed radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis.

Ayres DC, Marcucci MC, Giorgio S.
Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil.
Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV) were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 microg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

Trichophyton species susceptibility to green and red propolis from Brazil.

Siqueira AB, Gomes BS, Cambuim I, Maia R, Abreu S, Souza-Motta CM, de Queiroz LA, Porto AL.
Department of Mycology, Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife-PE, Brazil. absiqueira@hotmail.com
The in vitro antifungal activity of Brazilian green and red propolis was tested against different species of Trichophyton.
The antifungal activity of the Brazilian aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the green propolis and the alcoholic extract of red propolis was observed against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton mentagrohytes samples, using as controls itraconazole and terbinafine. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined following the microdilution method indicated by the ‘Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute’. The minimal fungicide concentration was determined by the absence of growth in liquid sabouraud culture medium. The data obtained showed that the green propolis alcoholic extract’s antifungal activity was from 64 to 1024 microg ml(-1), whereas the red propolis alcoholic extract was from 8 to 1024 microg ml(-1).
The antifungal activity of the red propolis alcoholic extract was more efficient than the green propolis alcoholic extract for all three species studied. The T. rubrum samples were shown to be more sensitive to the antifungal activity of the alcoholic extracts of the propolis.
The antifungal potential of the alcoholic extracts of green and red propolis demonstrated suggest an applicable potential as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis caused by these species.